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 SPECIFICATION
SPACE ANTENNA HANDBOOK (hb)2012
Author: IMBRIALE
ISBN: 9781119993193
Year: 2012
Publisher: JOHN WILEY
Category: ENGINEERING  >-- ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING  >-- ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Untitled Document
Edition: 1
Format: Hard Cover
Language: English
Pages: 772
 ABOUT THE TITLE
This book addresses a broad range of topics on antennas for space applications. First, it introduces the fundamental methodologies of space antenna design, modelling and analysis as well as the state-of-the-art and anticipated future technological developments. Each of the topics discussed are specialized and contextualized to the space sector. Furthermore, case studies are also provided to demonstrate the design and implementation of antennas in actual applications. Second, the authors present a detailed review of antenna designs for some popular applications such as satellite communications, space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, science instruments, radio astronomy, small satellites, and deep-space applications. Finally it presents the reader with a comprehensive path from space antenna development basics to specific individual applications.
Key Features:

• Presents a detailed review of antenna designs for applications such as satellite communications, space-borne SAR, GNSS receivers, science instruments, small satellites, radio astronomy, deep-space applications
• Addresses the space antenna development from different angles, including electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical design strategies required for space qualification
• Includes numerous case studies to demonstrate how to design and implement antennas in practical scenarios
• Offers both an introduction for students in the field and an in-depth reference for antenna engineers who develop space antennas

This book serves as an excellent reference for researchers, professionals and graduate students in the fields of antennas and propagation, electromagnetics, RF/microwave/millimetrewave systems, satellite communications, radars, satellite remote sensing, satellite navigation and spacecraft system engineering, It also aids engineers technical managers and professionals working on antenna and RF designs. Marketing and business people in satellites, wireless, and electronics area who want to acquire a basic understanding of the technology will also find this book of interest.

William A. Imbriale, Steven Gao, Luigi Boccia
Untitled Document
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Acronyms xxi
Contributors xxv
1 Antenna Basics 1
Luigi Boccia and Olav Breinbjerg
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Antenna Performance Parameters 2
1.2.1 Reflection Coefficient and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio 2
1.2.2 Antenna Impedance 3
1.2.3 Radiation Pattern and Coverage 4
1.2.4 Polarization 6
1.2.5 Directivity 7
1.2.6 Gain and Realized Gain 8
1.2.7 Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power 8
1.2.8 Effective Area 9
1.2.9 Phase Center 9
1.2.10 Bandwidth 9
1.2.11 Antenna Noise Temperature 9
1.3 Basic Antenna Elements 10
1.3.1 Wire Antennas 10
1.3.2 Horn Antennas 10
1.3.3 Reflectors 15
1.3.4 Helical Antennas 17
1.3.5 Printed Antennas 19
1.4 Arrays 26
1.4.1 Array Configurations 28
1.5 Basic Effects of Antennas in the Space Environment 30
1.5.1 Multipaction 30
1.5.2 Passive Inter-modulation 31
1.5.3 Outgassing 31
References 32
2 Space Antenna Modeling 36
Jian Feng Zhang, Xue Wei Ping, Wen Ming Yu, Xiao Yang Zhou, and Tie Jun Cui
2.1 Introduction 36
2.1.1 Maxwell’s Equations 37
2.1.2 CEM 37
2.2 Methods of Antenna Modeling 39
2.2.1 Basic Theory 39
2.2.2 Method of Moments 40
2.2.3 FEM 45
2.2.4 FDTD Method 49
2.3 Fast Algorithms for Large Space Antenna Modeling 54
2.3.1 Introduction 54
2.3.2 MLFMA 54
2.3.3 Hierarchical Basis for the FEM 62
2.4 Case Studies: Effects of the Satellite Body on the Radiation Patterns of Antennas 68
2.5 Summary 73
Acknowledgments 73
References 73
3 System Architectures of Satellite Communication, Radar, Navigation and Remote Sensing 76
Michael A. Thorburn
3.1 Introduction 76
3.2 Elements of Satellite System Architecture 76
3.3 Satellite Missions 77
3.4 Communications Satellites 77
3.4.1 Fixed Satellite Services 77
3.4.2 Broadcast Satellite Services (Direct Broadcast Services) 78
3.4.3 Digital Audio Radio Services 78
3.4.4 Direct to Home Broadband Services 78
3.4.5 Mobile Communications Services 78
3.5 Radar Satellites 79
3.6 Navigational Satellites 79
3.7 Remote Sensing Satellites 80
3.8 Architecture of Satellite Command and Control 80
3.9 The Communications Payload Transponder 80
3.9.1 Bent-Pipe Transponders 81
3.9.2 Digital Transponders 81
3.9.3 Regenerative Repeater 81
3.10 Satellite Functional Requirements 81
3.10.1 Key Performance Concepts: Coverage, Frequency Allocations 82
3.10.2 Architecture of the Communications Payload 82
3.10.3 Satellite Communications System Performance Requirements 83
3.11 The Satellite Link Equation 83
3.12 The Microwave Transmitter Block 84
3.12.1 Intercept Point 85
3.12.2 Output Backoff 86
3.12.3 The Transmit Antenna and EIRP 87
3.13 Rx Front-End Block 88
3.13.1 Noise Figure and Noise Temperature 88
3.14 Received Power in the Communications System’s RF Link 90
3.14.1 The Angular Dependencies of the Uplink and Downlink 91
3.15 Additional Losses in the Satellite and Antenna 91
3.15.1 Additional Losses due to Propagation Effects and the Atmosphere 91
3.15.2 Ionospheric Effects – Scintillation and Polarization Rotation 93
3.16 Thermal Noise and the Antenna Noise Temperature 93
3.16.1 The Interface between the Antenna and the Communications System 93
3.16.2 The Uplink Signal to Noise 94
3.17 The SNR Equation and Minimum Detectable Signal 94
3.18 Power Flux Density, Saturation Flux Density and Dynamic Range 95
3.18.1 Important Relationship between PFD and Gain State of the Satellite Transponder 95
3.19 Full-Duplex Operation and Passive Intermodulation 96
3.20 Gain and Gain Variation 96
3.21 Pointing Error 97
3.22 Remaining Elements of Satellite System Architecture 98
3.23 Orbits and Orbital Considerations 98
3.24 Spacecraft Introduction 100
3.25 Spacecraft Budgets (Mass, Power, Thermal) 101
3.25.1 Satellite Mass 101
3.25.2 Satellite Power 101
3.25.3 Satellite Thermal Dissipation 101
3.26 Orbital Mission Life and Launch Vehicle Considerations 102
3.27 Environment Management (Thermal, Radiation) 102
3.28 Spacecraft Structure (Acoustic/Dynamic) 103
3.29 Satellite Positioning (Station Keeping) 103
3.30 Satellite Positioning (Attitude Control) 104
3.31 Power Subsystem 104
3.32 Tracking, Telemetry, Command and Monitoring 105
References 105
4 Space Environment and Materials 106
J. Santiago-Prowald and L. Salghetti Drioli
4.1 Introduction 106
4.2 The Space Environment of Antennas 106
4.2.1 The Radiation Environment 107
4.2.2 The Plasma Environment 109
4.2.3 The Neutral Environment 110
4.2.4 Space Environment for Typical Spacecraft Orbits 111
4.2.5 Thermal Environment 111
4.2.6 Launch Environment 113
4.3 Selection of Materials in Relation to Their Electromagnetic Properties 117
4.3.1 RF Transparent Materials and Their Use 117
4.3.2 RF Conducting Materials and Their Use 117
4.3.3 Material Selection Golden Rules for PIM Control 118
4.4 Space Materials and Manufacturing Processes 118
4.4.1 Metals and Their Alloys 118
4.4.2 Polymer Matrix Composites 121
4.4.3 Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites 125
4.5 Characterization of Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour 127
4.5.1 Thermal Vacuum Environment and Outgassing Screening 127
4.5.2 Fundamental Characterization Tests of Polymers and Composites 128
4.5.3 Characterization of Mechanical Properties 130
4.5.4 Thermal and Thermoelastic Characterization 131
Acknowledgements 131
References 131
5 Mechanical and Thermal Design of Space Antennas 133
J. Santiago-Prowald and Heiko Ritter
5.1 Introduction: The Mechanical–Thermal–Electrical Triangle 133
5.1.1 Antenna Product 134
5.1.2 Configuration, Materials and Processes 135
5.1.3 Review of Requirements and Their Verification 136
5.2 Design of Antenna Structures 136
5.2.1 Typical Design Solutions for Reflectors 136
5.2.2 Structural Description of the Sandwich Plate Architecture 143
5.2.3 Thermal Description of the Sandwich Plate Architecture 143
5.2.4 Electrical Description of the Sandwich Plate Architecture in Relation to Thermo-mechanical Design 144
5.3 Structural Modelling and Analysis 144
5.3.1 First-Order Plate Theory 145
5.3.2 Higher Order Plate Theories 148
5.3.3 Classical Laminated Plate Theory 148
5.3.4 Homogeneous Isotropic Plate Versus Symmetric Sandwich Plate 149
5.3.5 Skins Made of Composite Material 150
5.3.6 Honeycomb Core Characteristics 152
5.3.7 Failure Modes of Sandwich Plates 152
5.3.8 Mass Optimization of Sandwich Plate Architecture for Antennas 154
5.3.9 Finite Element Analysis 156
5.3.10 Acoustic Loads on Antennas 159
5.4 Thermal and Thermoelastic Analysis 166
5.4.1 The Thermal Environment of Space Antennas 166
5.4.2 Transverse Thermal Conductance Model of the Sandwich Plate 167
5.4.3 Thermal Balance of the Flat Sandwich Plate 168
5.4.4 Thermal Distortions of a Flat Plate in Space 169
5.4.5 Thermoelastic Stability of an Offset Parabolic Reflector 171
5.4.6 Thermal Analysis Tools 172
5.4.7 Thermal Analysis Cases 173
5.4.8 Thermal Model Uncertainty and Margins 173
5.5 Thermal Control Strategies 173
5.5.1 Requirements and Principal Design Choices 173
5.5.2 Thermal Control Components 174
5.5.3 Thermal Design Examples 176
Acknowledgements 177
References 178
6 Testing of Antennas for Space 179
Jerzy Lemanczyk, Hans Juergen Steiner, and Quiterio Garcia
6.1 Introduction 179
6.2 Testing as a Development and Verification Tool 180
6.2.1 Engineering for Test 180
6.2.2 Model Philosophy and Definitions 182
6.2.3 Electrical Model Correlation 190
6.2.4 Thermal Testing and Model Correlation 195
6.3 Antenna Testing Facilities 203
6.3.1 Far-Field Antenna Test Ranges 203
6.3.2 Compact Antenna Test Ranges 203
6.3.3 Near-Field Measurements and Facilities 212
6.3.4 Environmental Test Facilities and Mechanical Testing 220
6.3.5 PIM Testing 224
6.4 Case Study: SMOS 226
6.4.1 The SMOS MIRAS Instrument 227
6.4.2 SMOS Model Philosophy 231
6.4.3 Antenna Pattern Test Campaign 238
References 248
7 Historical Overview of the Development of Space Antennas 250
Antoine G. Roederer
7.1 Introduction 250
7.2 The Early Days 252
7.2.1 Wire and Slot Antennas on Simple Satellite Bodies 252
7.2.2 Antenna Computer Modelling Takes Off 254
7.2.3 Existing/Classical Antenna Designs Adapted for Space 259
7.3 Larger Reflectors with Complex Feeding Systems 262
7.3.1 Introduction 262
7.3.2 Multi-frequency Antennas 263
7.3.3 Large Unfurlable Antennas 271
7.3.4 Solid Surface Deployable Reflector Antennas 279
7.3.5 Polarization-Sensitive and Shaped Reflectors 282
7.3.6 Multi-feed Antennas 285
7.4 Array Antennas 297
7.4.1 Conformal Arrays on Spin-Stabilized Satellites 297
7.4.2 Arrays for Remote Sensing 298
7.4.3 Arrays for Telecommunications 302
7.5 Conclusions 306
Acknowledgements 307
References 307
8 Deployable Mesh Reflector Antennas for Space Applications: RF Characterizations 314
Paolo Focardi, Paula R. Brown, and Yahya Rahmat-Samii
8.1 Introduction 314
8.2 History of Deployable Mesh Reflectors 315
8.3 Design Considerations Specific to Mesh Reflectors 320
8.4 The SMAP Mission – A Representative Case Study 320
8.4.1 Mission Overview 320
8.4.2 Key Antenna Design Drivers and Constraints 322
8.4.3 RF Performance Determination of Reflector Surface Materials 327
8.4.4 RF Modeling of the Antenna Radiation Pattern 329
8.4.5 Feed Assembly Design 338
8.4.6 Performance Verification 340
8.5 Conclusion 341
Acknowledgments 341
References 341
9 Microstrip Array Technologies for Space Applications 344
Antonio Montesano, Luis F. de la Fuente, Fernando Monjas, Vicente Garcýa, Luis E. Cuesta, Jennifer Campuzano, Ana Trastoy, Miguel Bustamante, Francisco Casares, Eduardo Alonso, David A ´ lvarez, Silvia Arenas, Jose Luis Serrano, and Margarita Naranjo
9.1 Introduction 344
9.2 Basics of Array Antennas 345
9.2.1 Functional (Driving) Requirements and Array Design Solutions 345
9.2.2 Materials for Passive Arrays Versus Environmental and Design Requirements 347
9.2.3 Array Optimization Methods and Criteria 349
9.3 Passive Arrays 350
9.3.1 Radiating Panels for SAR Antennas 350
9.3.2 Navigation Antennas 354
9.3.3 Passive Antennas for Deep Space 361
9.4 Active Arrays 363
9.4.1 Key Active Elements in Active Antennas: Amplifiers 363
9.4.2 Active Hybrids 366
9.4.3 The Thermal Dissipation Design Solution 367
9.4.4 Active Array Control 369
9.4.5 Active Arrays for Communications and Data Transmission 370
9.5 Summary 383
Acknowledgements 383
References 384
10 Printed Reflectarray Antennas for Space Applications 385
Jose A. Encinar
10.1 Introduction 385
10.2 Principle of Operation and Reflectarray Element Performance 388
10.3 Analysis and Design Techniques 391
10.3.1 Analysis and Design of Reflectarray Elements 391
10.3.2 Design and Analysis of Reflectarray Antennas 393
10.3.3 Broadband Techniques 396
10.4 Reflectarray Antennas for Telecommunication and Broadcasting Satellites 400
10.4.1 Contoured-Beam Reflectarrays 400
10.4.2 Dual-Coverage Transmit Antenna 402
10.4.3 Transmit–Receive Antenna for Coverage of South America 405
10.5 Recent and Future Developments for Space Applications 414
10.5.1 Large-Aperture Reflectarrays 414
10.5.2 Inflatable Reflectarrays 415
10.5.3 High-Gain Antennas for Deep Space Communications 416
10.5.4 Multibeam Reflectarrays 418
10.5.5 Dual-Reflector Configurations 420
10.5.6 Reconfigurable and Steerable Beam Reflectarrays 424
10.5.7 Conclusions and Future Developments 428
Acknowledgments 428
References 429
11 Emerging Antenna Technologies for Space Applications 435
Safieddin Safavi-Naeini and Mohammad Fakharzadeh
11.1 Introduction 435
11.2 On-Chip/In-Package Antennas for Emerging Millimeter-Wave Systems 436
11.2.1 Recent Advances in On-Chip Antenna Technology 436
11.2.2 Silicon IC Substrate Limitations for On-Chip Antennas 437
11.2.3 On-Chip Antenna on Integrated Passive Silicon Technology 439
11.3 Integrated Planar Waveguide Technologies 441
11.4 Microwave/mmW MEMS-Based Circuit Technologies for Antenna Applications 445
11.4.1 RF/Microwave MEMS-Based Phase Shifter 447
11.4.2 Reflective-Type Phase Shifters for mmW Beam-Forming Applications 447
11.5 Emerging THz Antenna Systems and Integrated Structures 448
11.5.1 THz Photonics Techniques: THz Generation Using Photo-mixing Antennas 451
11.5.2 THz Generation Using a Photo-mixing Antenna Array 453
11.6 Case Study: Low-Cost/Complexity Antenna Technologies for Land-Mobile Satellite Communications 454
11.6.1 System-Level Requirements 454
11.6.2 Reconfigurable Very Low-Profile Antenna Array Technologies 454
11.6.3 Beam Steering Techniques 455
11.6.4 Robust Zero-Knowledge Beam Control Algorithm 457
11.6.5 A Ku-band Low-Profile, Low-Cost Array System for Vehicular Communication 458
11.7 Conclusions 462
References 462
12 Antennas for Satellite Communications 466
Eric Amyotte and Luýs Martins Camelo
12.1 Introduction and Design Requirements 466
12.1.1 Link Budget Considerations 467
12.1.2 Types of Satellite Communications Antennas 469
12.1.3 Materials 469
12.1.4 The Space Environment and Its Design Implications 470
12.1.5 Designing for Commercial Applications 470
12.2 UHF Satellite Communications Antennas 471
12.2.1 Typical Requirements and Solutions 471
12.2.2 Single-Element Design 472
12.2.3 Array Design 473
12.2.4 Multipactor Threshold 473
12.3 L/S-band Mobile Satellite Communications Antennas 474
12.3.1 Introduction 474
12.3.2 The Need for Large Unfurlable Reflectors 474
12.3.3 Beam Forming 475
12.3.4 Hybrid Matrix Power Amplification 476
12.3.5 Feed Array Element Design 478
12.3.6 Diplexers 478
12.3.7 Range Measurements 479
12.4 C-, Ku- and Ka-band FSS/BSS Antennas 479
12.4.1 Typical Requirements and Solutions 479
12.4.2 The Shaped-Reflector Technology 480
12.4.3 Power Handling 481
12.4.4 Antenna Structures and Reflectors 481
12.4.5 Reflector Antenna Geometries 482
12.4.6 Feed Chains 491
12.5 Multibeam Broadband Satellite Communications Antennas 496
12.5.1 Typical Requirements and Solutions 496
12.5.2 SFB Array-Fed Reflector Antennas 497
12.5.3 FAFR Antennas 500
12.5.4 DRA Antennas 503
12.5.5 RF Sensing and Tracking 503
12.6 Antennas for Non-geostationary Constellations 504
12.6.1 Typical Requirements and Solutions 504
12.6.2 Global Beam Ground Links 505
12.6.3 High-Gain Ground Links 505
12.6.4 Intersatellite Links or Cross-links 506
12.6.5 Feeder Links 507
Acknowledgments 508
References 508
13 SAR Antennas 511
Pasquale Capece and Andrea Torre
13.1 Introduction to Spaceborne SAR Systems 511
13.1.1 General Presentation of SAR Systems 511
13.1.2 Azimuth Resolution in Conventional Radar and in SAR 512
13.1.3 Antenna Requirements Versus Performance Parameters 514
13.2 Challenges of Antenna Design for SAR 518
13.2.1 Reflector Antennas 518
13.2.2 Active Antennas and Subsystems 519
13.3 A Review of the Development of Antennas for Spaceborne SAR 534
13.3.1 TecSAR 534
13.3.2 SAR- Lupe 535
13.3.3 ASAR (EnviSat) 535
13.3.4 Radarsat 1 535
13.3.5 Radarsat 2 535
13.3.6 Palsar (ALOS) 535
13.3.7 TerraSAR-X 536
13.3.8 COSMO (SkyMed) 536
13.4 Case Studies of Antennas for Spaceborne SAR 539
13.4.1 Instrument Design 539
13.4.2 SAR Antenna 540
13.5 Ongoing Developments in SAR Antennas 544
13.5.1 Sentinel 1 544
13.5.2 Saocom Mission 544
13.5.3 ALOS 2 545
13.5.4 COSMO Second Generation 545
13.6 Acknowledgments 546
References 546
14 Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System Receivers 548
Chi-Chih Chen, Steven (Shichang) Gao, and Moazam Maqsood
14.1 Introduction 548
14.2 RF Requirements of GNSS Receiving Antenna 551
14.2.1 General RF Requirements 551
14.2.2 Advanced Requirements for Enhanced Position Accuracy and Multipath Signal Suppression 556
14.3 Design Challenges and Solutions for GNSS Antennas 561
14.3.1 Wide Frequency Coverage 562
14.3.2 Antenna Delay Variation with Frequency and Angle 562
14.3.3 Antenna Size Reduction 567
14.3.4 Antenna Platform Scattering Effect 568
14.4 Common and Novel GNSS Antennas 572
14.4.1 Single-Element Antenna 572
14.4.2 Multi-element Antenna Array 580
14.5 Spaceborne GNSS Antennas 582
14.5.1 Requirements for Antennas On Board Spaceborne GNSS Receivers 582
14.5.2 A Review of Antennas Developed for Spaceborne GNSS Receivers 584
14.6 Case Study: Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Spacecraft Precise Orbit Determination Applications 586
14.6.1 Antenna Development 586
14.6.2 Results and Discussions 588
14.7 Summary 591
References 592
15 Antennas for Small Satellites 596
Steven (Shichang) Gao, Keith Clark, Jan Zackrisson, Kevin Maynard, Luigi Boccia, and Jiadong Xu
15.1 Introduction to Small Satellites 596
15.1.1 Small Satellites and Their Classification 596
15.1.2 Microsatellites and Constellations of Small Satellites 597
15.1.3 Cube Satellites 598
15.1.4 Formation Flying of Multiple Small Satellites 599
15.2 The Challenges of Designing Antennas for Small Satellites 600
15.2.1 Choice of Operating Frequencies 600
15.2.2 Small Ground Planes Compared with the Operational Wavelength 601
15.2.3 Coupling between Antennas and Structural Elements 601
15.2.4 Antenna Pattern 602
15.2.5 Orbital Height 602
15.2.6 Development Cost 602
15.2.7 Production Costs 602
15.2.8 Testing Costs 602
15.2.9 Deployment Systems 603
15.2.10 Volume 603
15.2.11 Mass 603
15.2.12 Shock and Vibration Loads 603
15.2.13 Material Degradation 603
15.2.14 Atomic Oxygen 603
15.2.15 Material Outgassing 604
15.2.16 Creep 604
15.2.17 Material Charging 604
15.2.18 The Interaction between Satellite Antennas and Structure 604
15.3 Review of Antenna Development for Small Satellites 606
15.3.1 Antennas for Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) 606
15.3.2 Antennas for High-Rate Data Downlink 609
15.3.3 Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Receivers and Reflectometry 615
15.3.4 Antennas for Intersatellite Links 618
15.3.5 Other Antennas 619
15.4 Case Studies 621
15.4.1 Case Study 1: Antenna Pointing Mechanism and Horn Antenna 621
15.4.2 Case Study 2: X-band Downlink Helix Antenna 623
15.5 Conclusions 627
References 628
16 Space Antennas for Radio Astronomy 629
Paul F. Goldsmith
16.1 Introduction 629
16.2 Overview of Radio Astronomy and the Role of Space Antennas 629
16.3 Space Antennas for Cosmic Microwave Background Studies 631
16.3.1 The Microwave Background 631
16.3.2 Soviet Space Observations of the CMB 632
16.3.3 The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Satellite 633
16.3.4 The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 635
16.3.5 The Planck Mission 637
16.4 Space Radio Observatories for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Astronomy 641
16.4.1 Overview of Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Astronomy 641
16.4.2 The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite 643
16.4.3 The Odin Orbital Observatory 646
16.4.4 The Herschel Space Observatory 648
16.4.5 The Future: Millimetron, CALISTO, and Beyond 650
16.5 Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy 652
16.5.1 Overview of Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy 652
16.5.2 Early Low-Frequency Radio Space Missions 653
16.5.3 The Future 655
16.6 Space VLBI 655
16.6.1 Overview of Space VLBI 655
16.6.2 HALCA 656
16.6.3 RadioAstron 658
16.7 Summary 658
Acknowledgments 660
References 660
17 Antennas for Deep Space Applications 664
Paula R. Brown, Richard E. Hodges, and Jacqueline C. Chen
17.1 Introduction 664
17.2 Telecommunications Antennas 665
17.3 Case Study I – Mars Science Laboratory 666
17.3.1 MSL Mission Description 666
17.3.2 MSL X-band Antennas 668
17.3.3 MSL UHF Antennas 676
17.3.4 MSL Terminal Descent Sensor (Landing Radar) 680
17.4 Case Study II – Juno 681
17.4.1 Juno Mission Description 681
17.4.2 Telecom Antennas 682
17.4.3 Juno Microwave Radiometer Antennas 684
Acknowledgments 692
References 693
18 Space Antenna Challenges for Future Missions, Key Techniques and Technologies 695
Cyril Mangenot and William A. Imbriale
18.1 Overview of Chapter Contents 695
18.2 General Introduction 696
18.3 General Evolution of Space Antenna Needs and Requirements 697
18.4 Develop Large-Aperture Antennas 699
18.4.1 Problem Area and Challenges 699
18.4.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 700
18.4.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 702
18.5 Increase Telecommunication Satellite Throughput 707
18.5.1 Problem Area and Challenges 707
18.5.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 707
18.5.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 708
18.6 Enable Sharing the Same Aperture for Multiband and Multipurpose Antennas 709
18.6.1 Problem Area and Challenges 709
18.6.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 710
18.6.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 710
18.7 Increase the Competitiveness of Well-Established Antenna Products 710
18.7.1 Problem Area and Challenges 710
18.7.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 711
18.7.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 712
18.8 Enable Single-Beam In-Flight Coverage/Polarization Reconfiguration 713
18.8.1 Problem Area and Challenges 713
18.8.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 714
18.8.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 714
18.9 Enable Active Antennas at Affordable Cost 715
18.9.1 Problem Area and Challenges 715
18.9.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 717
18.9.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 718
18.10 Develop Innovative Antennas for Future Earth Observation and Science Instruments 724
18.10.1 Problem Area and Challenges 724
18.10.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 725
18.10.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 729
18.11 Evolve Towards Mass Production of Satellite and User Terminal Antennas 732
18.11.1 Problem Area and Challenges 732
18.11.2 Present and Expected Future Space Missions 732
18.11.3 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 732
18.12 Technology Push for Enabling New Missions 734
18.12.1 Problem Area and Challenges 734
18.12.2 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 734
18.13 Develop New Approaches for Satellite/Antenna Modelling and Testing 735
18.13.1 Problem Area and Challenges 735
18.13.2 Promising Antenna Concepts and Technologies 736
18.14 Conclusions 737
Acronyms 738
Acknowledgements 740
References 740
Index 741
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