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FUNDAMENTALS OF LASER DENTISTRY (hb)2011
Author: JOHAR
ISBN: 9789350253779
Year: 2011
Publisher: JAYPEE BROTHERS MEDICAL PUBLISHERS PVT LTD.
Category: MEDICAL BOOKS  >-- DENTISTRY  >-- DENTISTRY Untitled Document
Edition: 1
Format: Hard Cover
Language: English
Pages: 151
 ABOUT THE TITLE
A ready reckoner handbook. Presents the basics of laser physics, laser safely and laser tissue interaction. Deals with all the clinical and relevant aspects, procedures and equipment of laser dentistry in an easy to follow pattern. Includes colored clinical photographs, illustrations and diagrams for clear understanding of the concepts. Present a chapter integrating lasers into your practice. Practice management for the practical aspect of laser assisted detistry.

Kirpa Johar
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 TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Basic Physics and Concepts of Lasers used in Dentistry..... 1
• Properties of Light
• Function of Laser Involving Optical Concepts
– Interaction Between Light and Matter
– Basic Scheme of a Laser
– Population Inversion
– Gaussian Beam and Laser Resonator
– Beam Delivery System
– Emission Modes
• Laser Tissue Interaction
– Effects of Temperature on Target Tissue
• Laser Media
– Gas Lasers
– Dye Lasers
– Semi-conductor—Diode Lasers
– Solid-state Lasers
• Pumping Methods and Schemes
• Laser Concepts
– Excimer Laser
– Dye Lasers
– Argon Ion Laser
– CO2
Laser
– Semi-conductor Lasers/Diode Lasers
– Solid State Laser
2. Laser Safety ..... 11
– Reasons for Laser Safety Education
– Maximum Permissible Exposure
• Classification of Light
– Wavelengths and their Penetration Depth
– Effect of Laser Beam on the Eye
– Impacts on Skin
• Laser Classes
– Class 1
– Class 1M
– Class 2
– Class 2M
– Class 3A
– Class 3B
– New Class 3R
– Class 4
• Secondary Hazards
– Common Hazards
– Specific Hazards
• Protective Measures
– Laser Protective Eyewear
– Labeling
– Directions
• Organizational Protective Arrangements
– Nomination of a Laser Safety Officer (LSO)
– Duties and Responsibilities of Laser Safety Officer
• Evaluation
3. Lasers in Preventive Dentistry ..... 21
• Conventional Treatment Methods
• Laser Application in Preventive Dentistry
– Light Interaction with Dental Hard Tissues
– Scattering and Absorption Parameters
Contents
• Mechanism of Laser Irradiation and Improved Caries Resistance
– Changes in Enamel Composition
– Creation of Microsive or Micropore System
• Effect of CO2 Lasers on Caries Prevention
– Surface Characteristics
– Combined with Fluoride Treatment
– Clinical Application
• Effect of Argon Lasers
– Mechanism of Action
• Effect of Nd:YAG Lasers
– Combined with Fluoride Treatment
– Clinical Application
• Effect of Er:YAG, Er, Cr:YSGG, Ho:YAG and UV Lasers
4. Lasers in Operative Dentistry ...... 31
– Development of the Laser-assisted Cavity Preparation
• Conventional Methods
– Rotary Instruments
– Kinetic Cavity Preparation—KCP
– Cavity Preparation Using Lasers
• Laser Supported Cavity Preparation
– Er: YAG and Er, Cr: YSGG Lasers
– Surface Characteristics of Laser-prepared Cavities
– Adhesion and Margin Seal of Laser Prepared Cavities
• Mechanisms of Ablation
– Mechanism of Absorption of Light in the 3 ΅m Range by Water
– Physical Factors Influencing Ablation Efficiency and Quality
– Criteria for Optimized Laser Systems in Hard Tissue Ablation
• Ablation with Low Collateral Damage
– Ablation by Ultrashort Laser Pulses – from Thermal Ablation to Plasma Mediated Ablation
• Other Types of Laser
– CO2
Laser
– Nd:YAG Laser
– Ho:YAG Laser
• Practical Procedure in Laser-assisted Cavity Preparation
– Application of the Rubber Dam
– Display of the Cavity
– Removal of Caries
– Finishing and Restoration of the Cavity
• Choice of Parameters
5. Photo Polymerization ........ 45
– Composition of Light Cured Filling Materials
• Photo Polymerization Reaction
• Laser Photo Polymerization versus Traditional Methods
– Improved Clinical Performance of Laser Cured Materials
• Factors Associated with Photo Polymerization
• Clinical Procedure of Photo Polymerization by an Argon Laser
6. Dentin Hypersensitivity ........ 53
– Causes
– Theories of Dentin Hypersensitivity
– Natural Pulpal Defense Mechanisms
• Conventional Treatment Methods
– Common Agents
• Laser Application in Treating Dentin Hypersensitivity
– Lower Output Power Lasers
• CO2
Laser
– Direct Method
– Indirect Method
• Clinical Procedure
– Initial Diagnosis and Evaluation
7. Laser-assisted Cosmetic Dentistry ....... 61
• Causes of Tooth Discoloration
– Extrinsic discolorations
– Several Kinds of Extrinsic Discolorations
xiv Fundamentals of Laser Dentistry
– Intrinsic Discolorations
– Discolorations in the Formative Phase
• Treatment Options
• Bleaching
– Bleaching Mechanism of Teeth
– Conventional Bleaching
• Clinical Procedure of Laser-assisted Teeth Whitening
– Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
– Oral Prophylaxis and Application of Gingival Barrier
– Laser-assisted Crown Lengthening Procedure
– Laser-assisted Crown Lengthening Clinical Procedure
– Laser-assisted Gingival Depigmentation Procedure
8. Laser Application in Pediatric Dentistry ........ 75
• Direct Pulp Capping
– Prerequisites for Direct Pulp Capping
• Procedures
– Conventional Pulp Capping
– Laser-assisted Pulp Capping
– Vitality Tests following Laser-assisted Pulp Capping
• Pulpotomy
– Introduction
– Laser-assisted Pulpotomy
• Soft Tissue Lasers Applications in Pediatric Dentistry
• Application of Lasers on Infantile Oral Soft Tissue Lesions
9. Laser in Endodontics ......... 81
– Endodontic Problems
• Root Canal Sterilization
– Conventional Methods
– Limitations/Disadvantages of Rinsing Solutions
– Laser Supported Root Canal Sterilization
• Description of the Different Wavelengths
– Nd: YAG Laser
– Diode Laser
– Er: YAG and Er, Cr: YSGG Lasers
• Root Canal Preparation
• Apical Sealing
• Safety in Laser Treatment
• Indications
• Practical Procedure
– Access Cavity Preparation
– Root Canal Shaping
– Root Canal Filling
10. Laser-assisted Periodontal Therapy.......... 91
• Etiology, Definitions and Pathogenesis
– Gingivitis—Periodontitis—Gingival Recession
– Plaque
– Periodonto Pathogenic Bacteria
– Histology
• Classification of Periodontal Diseases
– Gingivits
– Chronic Periodontitis
– Aggressive Periodontitis
– Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases
• Conventional Therapy
– Initial Therapy
– Corrective Phase or Surgical Corrective Measures
– Supporting Periodontal Therapy
• Laser Therapy
– Applied Lasers
– Impact of Different Lasers on Tissues
– Diode Laser
– Nd: YAG Laser
xv Contents
• CO2
Laser
– Er: YAG Laser
– Frequency-doubled Alexandrite Laser
• Practical Procedure
– Initial Diagnosis and Evaluation
– Clinical Preparation
– Aim of Treatment
– Laser Therapy
• Investigations of the Laser Effects
11. Laser in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery ....... 105
– Specific Surgical Problems
• Conventional Therapy
– Scalpel
– Electrotomy
• Laser Therapy
• Advantages and Disadvantages of Laser-assisted Oral Surgery
– Advantages
– Disadvantages
• Techniques for Laser Use in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
– Incision and Excision
– Ablation and Vaporization
– Hemostasis Techniques
• Laser in Implant Dentistry
– Peri-implantitis
• Cosmetic Facial Laser Surgery
• Laser-assisted Routine Clinical Procedures
– Pericoronitis
– Frenectomy and Ankyloglossia
– Vestibuloplasty
– Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer Treatment
• Laser-assisted Biopsy
12. Laser as an Adjunct to Orthodontics ........ 121
• Laser-assisted Bonding
• Laser-assisted Tooth Exposure
13. Low Level Laser Therapy....... 127
• Mechanism of Action
• Cellular Effects of LLLT during Wound Healing
• Effect of LLLT on Neural Tissues
• LLLT Applications in Clinical Dentistry
– Indications
– Factors Affecting the Efficacy of LLLT
• LLLT Equipment
– LLLT Devices
• Advantages and Disadvantages of LLLT
– Advantages of Low Level Laser Therapy
– Disadvantages of Soft Laser Therapy
14. Photo-activated Disinfection ......... 133
• Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
– Mechanism of Action of PAD
• Photosensitizers
• Indications of PAD Technique
• Lasers Used in PAD
15. Integrating Lasers into Your Practice: Practice Management ......... 139
• Dental Office in 21st Century
– Dentist’s Team Vision
– Expectations of the Staff
• Establishing Fees for Laser Procedures
• Marketing Laser Dentistry
Bibliography ..... 145
Index ....... 149
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